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North China overview

North China consists of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Rigion, Heilongjiang Province ,   Jilin Provicne , Liaoning Province, Hebei Province , Shangdong Province , Tianjing Municipality and Beijing Municipality , which is greatly influenced by Confucianism. In a Chinese mind, there is a distinction between north and south. The North Culture is found in North China .
Inner Mongolia
Autonomous Regin:
With a population of 23.76 million as of the year 2000.the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is situated 97"12"-126"04" east longitude and 37"24"-53"23" north latitude with an area of 1.183 million square kilometers, taking up 1/8 of that of the country and ranking the 3rd in China. Inner Mongolia has not only a large area but also geographical advantages, bordering Heilongjiang , Liaoning , Jilin , Hebei , Shanxi , Shaanxi , and Gansu provinces as well as Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in the east, south and west. It spans the northeast, north and northwest of China and borders Russia and Mongolia in the north with a boundary line as long as 4,221 kilometers, thus becoming am important frontier for China 's opening to the outside world.
The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is also called Inner Mongolia for short, with Hohhot as its capital city. Its origin can be traced back to the Ordos people who lived here 2,000 years ago.
With agriculture and stockbreeding as the main occupation, it also engages in forestry, coal mining and steel industries. Inner Mongolia abounds in natural resources especially mineral resources, and its reserves of rare earth and natural alkali rank first in China .
Inner Mongolia
is a special economic zone renowned as "treasure basin". What is most attractive about Inner Mongolia is its natural beauty. Vast grasslands, mushroom-like yurts, bright sky, fresh air, rolling grass and the flocks and herds moving like white clouds on the remote grassland, all contribute to make the scenery a very relaxing one.
The Greater Hinggan Mountain, renowned as the green treasure, is the largest and well-preserved primitive forest and also the Kingdom of Wildlife , with over 300 species of birds and 100 species of animals, 40 of which are listed among the national rare species.
Inner Mongolia
is an area of multiple ethnic groups with 3.77 million Mongolians, 17.6 million Hans and over 900,000 people of other ethnic minority groups. It is the first autonomous region of China established in 1947. People of various ethnic groups all have long histories and brilliant cultures.
The places of interest are Zhaojun Tomb in Hohhot , the Five-towers Temple , the Wudangzhao Monastery, and the Genghis Khan Mausoleum in Yijinhuoluo. The traditional special local products include pure wool coarse string, Alashan camel's hair, Xilin Gol mushroom and Hetao melon.
Heilongjiang Province :
With a population of 36.89 million as of 2000, mainly including ethnic groups of Han, Manchu, Korean, Hui, Mongolian, Daur, Hezhen, Oroqen and Ewenki, lying in the northernmost part of northeast China , Heilongjlang Province is the province with the longest winters. It is situated 121'13"-135'06" east longitude and 43'26"-53'34" north latitude with an area of 469,000 square kilometers. Boasting plenty of rivers, it has over 1,700 rivers, each of which is more than 10 kilometers long. Most of its land is 50-200 meters above sea level.
Heilongjiang
Province is called Hei for short, with Harbin as its provincial capital. With expanse of flatland and wide areas of fertile black soil, it is one of China 's major commodity grain growers. Named after its largest river, its land area includes the country's largest oil reserve.
Heilongjiang
is one of principal areas of land reclamation and cultivation in China . Its main crops include wheat, soybeans, beet, flax and sunflower which all occupy a significant position in China . It is abundant in forest and land resources and its soil is fertile. Among minerals, coal, petroleum, gold, and graphite all hold key positions in China . Heilongjiang is also China 's most important base of forestry, ranking No.1 in both timber reserve and production. The Greater and Lesser Hinggan Mountains are its major forest area.
The main industries comprise machine building, coal, petroleum and timber processing, in addition to papermaking, beet-sugar refinery, petrochemicals, flax-textiles, power-generating equipment, industrial boilers, etc. Harbin , Qiqihaer, Jiamusi and Mudanjiang are its major industrial centers. Daqing is one of China 's most important bases of petroleum industry.
Heilongjiang Province is blessed with a variety of unique tourist attractions, including the Wudalian Pond, an internationally known natural volcanic park; the Jingbo Lake, China's largest alpine dammed lake; the vast Xingkai Lake stretching over China and Russia; the Manchurian Crane Sanctuary, well known inside and outside of China; a beautiful, scenic forest under a volcanic crater; and the Polar Village, where the mysterious aurora borealis can be observed. Harbin 's annual Snow Festival adds charm to the beautiful northern landscape with the perfect harmony of its natural ice and snow scenery and the exquisite man-made ice sculptures.
The boundless great plain, the magnificent forests, snow-bound mountains, countless precious wild animals like swan red-crowned crane, Northeast Tiger, and Northeast Leopard as well as the unique local culture are attracting thousands of tourists home and abroad.
Liaoning Province :
Located in the southern part of China 's Northeast. Bordering on the Yellow Sea and theBohai Sea in the south and the Korean Peninsula in the east and facing Japan to its southeast, Liaoning Province covers an area of 145,900 square kilometers and has a population of 40.41 million. It is located in the southern part of China 's Northeast.
Bordering on the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea in the south and the Korean Peninsula in the east and facing Japan to its southeast.A heavy industrial base from the 1950s,
Liaoning has a solid industrial foundation with abundant natural resources. It is one of the comparatively well-developed coastal areas in northern China that are opened to the world. It produces corn, rice, soybeans, apples, prawns, abalones and kelp. Its principal minerals include coal, petroleum, iron ore, diamonds, etc.
Liaoning is a multi-nationality province with 44 nationalities in the province. Besides Han nationality, there are 43 minority nationalities, such as the Manchu, the Mongolian,the Hui, the Korean and the Sibo. The minority population is 6,550,000, making up 16% of the provincial total. Jilin Province :
Jilin province is located in the central part of Northeast China, adjoining Heilongjiang Province in the north, Lianing Province in the south, and the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region in the west. It lies in the hinterland of the northeastern Asia composed of Japan , Russia , the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea , the Republic of Korea , Mongolia , and the northeast part of China , adjacent to Russia in the east, and opposite to the DPRK in the southeast across the Tumen and Yalu rivers. Located between 122-131 degrees E and 41-46 degrees N., its territory covers 187,400 square kilometers, accounting for 2 percent of the nation’s total, which extend 650 km from east to west, and 300 km from south to north. The land is high in the southeastern part and low in the northwestern, with a vast plain lying in its mid-west.
Jilin Province is located in the middle latitudes of the northern hemisphere, east of the Euro-Asian continent, the northernmost section of the temperate zone in China , nearing the sub-frigid zone. The eastern part of the province is close to the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan , where the atmosphere is moist often accompanied with much rain. The climate of its western part, which is far from the sea and approaches to the arid Mongolian Plateau, is dry. As a whole, the province has a distinct temperate continental monsoon climate with a clear-cut change of four seasons. The yearly average temperature of most part of the province is 3-5 °C. The annual time of sunshine is 2,200—3,000 hours. The annual average accumulated temperature in activity is 2,700—3,600 °C. The precipitation of the province in a year is 550—910 mm and the frost-free period lasts 120—160 days. With hot and rainy days in the same season, it is good for farming. The frost period begins in the last 10 days of September and lasts until the end of April or early May.
The province boasts rich tourism resources. In the provincial capital Changchun , there are the former government office of the Manchurian State established by the Japanese invaders during World War II, the Jingyuetan Forest Park, the Monument to the Martyrs of the Soviet Red Army, the Automobile Town , and the Changchun Film Studio. In Jilin City, there are the mountain city of Gaojuli on Mount Longtans; Beishan Park; the Songhua Lake in Fengman; the Baohai Ancient Tombs in Mount Liuding of Dunhua; the Chengzishan mountain city in Yanji; the Changbeishan Nature Reserve that covers a vast area in the three counties of Changbei, Antu and Fusong and boasts scenic spots such as the Heavenly Pond, waterfalls, and groups of hot springs and grand canyons. In Tonghua, there is the Tomb of General Yang Jingyu.

Hebei Province :
Hebei Province , abbreviated as Ji, is located in the northern part of Huabei (North China ) Plain, facing the Bohai Sea in the east. It is also called "Yanzhao" because it used to be the territory of the Yan and the Zhao states during the periods of Spring and Autumn and Warring States . During the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, Hebei became most important because Beijing was chose to be the capital, and was known as the environs of the capital. Covering an area of more than 190,000 square kilometers, the province has a population of 67.44 million of Han, Hui, Manchu, Mongolian, Korean and other ethnic backgrounds. The provincial capital is Shijiazhuang .
As a famous province of cultural relics in China , Hebei has numerous historical sites
and scenic spots pock-marking throughout its whole territory. There are three world heritage sites, five national famous historical and cultural cities, and more than 670 sites of historical and cultural interest which are under key protection at or above the provincial level. Major cultural relics and historical remains include the Mountain Resort and its outlying imperial temples in Chengde, Eastern and Western Imperial Tombs of the Qing Dynasty, the Great Wall at Jinshanling, Shanhaiguan and Laolongtou sections, Longxing Temple in Zhengding, Congtai Terrace in Handan , Anji Bridge in Zhaoxian County, Iron Lion in Cang-zhou and Xiangtangshan Mountain Grottoes in Handan .
Hebei possesses multiplex landscapes such as seashores, plains, lakes, mountains and plateau, as well as most diversified natural scenery. There are two national top ten
scenic spots, five national scenic resorts and nine national forest parks in the province. Major tourist attractions are Beidaihe Beach in Qinhuangdao , Baiyangdian scenic resort, known as "the Pearl of North China" Bashang Grassland, Cangyan Mountain , Tiangui Mountain and Yesanpo Scenic Area.
Shangdong Province :
Shangdong means Mountain’s East. Shangdong Province is located in the east of China and at the lower reaches of the Yellow River and abuts the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in the east , standing face to face with Korean peninsula and Japanese archipelago across the ocean. It has a population of 90 million and a total area of 156700 square kilometers. Shandong Province has more than 3000 kilometers long coastline, and almost 170,000 square kilometers Offing Ocean area. Shandong Province belongs to the climate of seasonal windy temperate zone, and average annual temperature is 11-14 o Crainfall is 550-590mm.
As capital city of Shandong Province , Jinan is famous for her long history and culture. Because of a great deal of springs, Jinan is called “ Spring City ”. Qingdao is a famous city along the coast, which has prosperous economy and beautiful landscape.
Shandong
Province is known by all around of the world for “ Mount Tai , Yellow River and Qufu-the hometown of Confucius”. Mount Tai is a symbol of the culture of China ; Yellow River is Mother River of China , and entering into ocean from Shandong . In history, Confucius, whom a grandness ideologistpoliticianeducationist , was the pillar of Chinese traditional culture, have a great effect on whole world.
Shandong
has enrichment product resource. The output of foodstuffcottonoil plantsvegetablemeataquatic product in Shandong Province are in the forefront of China. Shandong has found 140 kinds of mineral resources, the reserve of more than 50 kinds of mineral resources are in the top ten in China,  among them, the reserves and output of goldgypsumnature sulphurpetroleumdiamondmagnetitegranite are come out top of in China.
Tianjing Municipality
Located from 38 degree 34' to 40 degree 15' for north latitude and from 116 degree 43' to 118 degree 4' for east longitude, Tianjin is at the Northeast of North China and the lower reaches of the Haihe River . The total area is 11919.7 square kilometers. The length from south to north is 189 kilometers and the width from east to west is 117 kilometers. The Bohai Sea is on its east and the Yan Mountain is on its north. It is 137 kilometers from Tianjin to Beijing , calculated from the downtown center of Tianjin . Tianjin is the gate of the capital in geography.
In remote antiquity, most areas of Tianjin used to be a vast ocean and gradually become flatland after the sea water fell and the entrance of Haihe River moved to the north for three times and a large of amounts of silt left to make the coastline move to the east.
Five thousand year ago, human being appeared in Tianjin flatland. Tianjin began from the open of the Big Canal and development of the transport of grain by water to the capital in the Sui Dynasty. At the middle of the Tang Dynasty, Tianjin became a commercial and transportation center of grain and silk from the south to the north. In the Song Dynasty, it was called " Zhigu Stockaded Village " and changed its name " Jinhai Town " at the Yuan Dynasty. The name of Tianjin was called at the beginning of the Yongle Years of the Ming Dynasty at first, which meant that the area passed through by the Son of Heaven-the emperor. At the second year of Yongle Years of the Ming Dynasty (1404), as a strategic point, Tianjin began to build city wall and defenses and called "Tianjinwei". In 1860, Tianjin became atrading port and the second biggest industry and commerce city and the biggest center of finance,commerce and trade in the north in which industry production and port trade were only lower than shanghai for a long time.Tianjin became a municipality directly under the Central Government of the People's Republic of China after founding of New China.Now, there are 18 districts and counties in Tianjin, including 6 city center districts, as: Heping, hexi, Hebei, Hedong, Nankai and Hongqiao; 4 town districts, as: Dongli, Xiqing, Jinnan, Beichen; 3 seashore districts , as: Tanggu, Hangu and Dagang, and 5 counties, as : Wuqing, Ji County, Ninghe, Baodi and Jinghai. The resident population is 9.5948 million.
Beijing
Municipality
A s the capital of China , Beijing is one of the world's truly imposing cities , with a 3,000-year history and 11 million people. Covering 16,808 square kilometers in area, it is the political, cultural and economic center of the People's Republic .
Situated in northeast China , Beijing adjoins the Inner Mongolian Highland to the northwest and the Great Northern Plain to the south. Five rivers run through the city, connecting it to the eastern Bohai Sea . Administratively, the Beijing municipality equals the status of a province , reporting directly to the central government.
Rich in history, Beijing has been China 's primary capital for more than seven centuries. China 's imperial past and political present meet at Tiananmen square, where the Forbidden City palace of the emperors gives way to the Great Hall of the People congress building and the mausoleum of Chairman Mao Zedong . The old city walls have been replaced by ring roads, and many of the old residential districts of alleys and courtyard houses have been turned into high-rise hotels, office buildings, and department stores. Beijing , a dynamic city where the old and new intermingle, remains a magnet for visitors from inside and outside China .
Beijing
is a city of broad boulevards, now full of traffic and pulsating to the rhythms of commerce and entertainment.   Museums and parks abound, including the Palace Museum of the Forbidden City and Beihai Park in the center of town. Nearby, the China Fine Arts Museum ( Zhongguo meishuguan ) exhibits the work of contemporary artists. China 's ancient past and recent history are on view at the Museum of Chinese History and Chinese Revolution at Tiananmen . Antiques, crafts, and books can be found at Liulichang , an old antique market district remodeled in the 1980's to reflect the style of the old city. Some of the spirit of Old Beijing is also preserved at Qianmen , south of Tiananmen , with stores that date to the early 20th century and beyond, including the Tongrentang Traditional Medicine Shop, first established in 1669. Beijing Opera performances and acrobatic troupes keep those traditional entertainment forms vital, while contemporary music clubs and discos thrive in an era of liberalization and prosperity.