North China overview
China consists of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Rigion,
, which is greatly influenced by Confucianism. In a Chinese mind, there is
a distinction between north and south. The North Culture is found in
a population of 23.76 million as of the year 2000.the Inner Mongolia
Autonomous Region is situated 97"12"-126"04" east
longitude and 37"24"-53"23" north latitude with an
area of 1.183 million square kilometers, taking up 1/8 of that of the
country and ranking the 3rd in China. Inner Mongolia has not only a large
area but also geographical advantages, bordering
provinces as well as Ningxia Hui
Autonomous Region in the east, south and west. It spans the northeast,
north and northwest of
in the north with a boundary line as long as 4,221 kilometers, thus
becoming am important frontier for
's opening to the outside world.
The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is also called Inner Mongolia for
as its capital city. Its origin can be traced back to the
people who lived here 2,000 years ago.
With agriculture and stockbreeding as the main occupation, it also engages
in forestry, coal mining and steel industries. Inner Mongolia abounds in
natural resources especially mineral resources, and its reserves of rare
earth and natural alkali rank first in
is a special economic zone renowned as "treasure basin". What is
most attractive about
is its natural beauty. Vast grasslands, mushroom-like yurts, bright sky,
fresh air, rolling grass and the flocks and herds moving like white clouds
on the remote grassland, all contribute to make the scenery a very
The Greater Hinggan Mountain, renowned as the
green treasure, is the largest and well-preserved primitive forest and
, with over 300 species of birds and 100 species of animals, 40 of which
are listed among the national rare species.
is an area of multiple ethnic groups with 3.77 million Mongolians, 17.6
million Hans and over 900,000 people of other ethnic minority groups. It
is the first autonomous region of
established in 1947. People of various ethnic groups all have long
histories and brilliant cultures.
The places of interest are Zhaojun Tomb in
, the Wudangzhao Monastery, and the Genghis
Khan Mausoleum in Yijinhuoluo. The traditional
special local products include pure wool coarse string, Alashan
camel's hair, Xilin Gol
mushroom and Hetao melon.
a population of 36.89 million as of 2000, mainly including ethnic groups
of Han, Manchu, Korean, Hui, Mongolian, Daur,
Hezhen, Oroqen and
Ewenki, lying in the northernmost part of
is the province with the longest winters. It is situated
121'13"-135'06" east longitude and 43'26"-53'34" north
latitude with an area of 469,000 square kilometers. Boasting plenty of
rivers, it has over 1,700 rivers, each of which is more than 10 kilometers
long. Most of its land is 50-200 meters above sea level.
is called Hei for short, with
as its provincial capital. With expanse of flatland and wide areas of
fertile black soil, it is one of
's major commodity grain growers. Named after its largest river, its land
area includes the country's largest oil reserve.
is one of principal areas of land reclamation and cultivation in
. Its main crops include wheat, soybeans, beet, flax and sunflower which
all occupy a significant position in
. It is abundant in forest and land resources and its soil is fertile.
Among minerals, coal, petroleum, gold, and graphite all hold key positions
's most important base of forestry, ranking No.1 in both timber reserve
and production. The Greater and Lesser Hinggan
Mountains are its major forest area.
The main industries comprise machine building, coal, petroleum and timber
processing, in addition to papermaking, beet-sugar refinery,
petrochemicals, flax-textiles, power-generating equipment, industrial
are its major industrial centers. Daqing is
's most important bases of petroleum industry.
Heilongjiang Province is blessed with a variety of unique tourist
attractions, including the Wudalian Pond, an
internationally known natural volcanic park; the Jingbo
Lake, China's largest alpine dammed lake; the vast Xingkai
Lake stretching over China and Russia; the Manchurian Crane Sanctuary,
well known inside and outside of China; a beautiful, scenic forest under a
volcanic crater; and the Polar Village, where the mysterious aurora
borealis can be observed.
's annual Snow Festival adds charm to the beautiful northern landscape
with the perfect harmony of its natural ice and snow scenery and the
exquisite man-made ice sculptures.
The boundless great plain, the magnificent forests, snow-bound mountains,
countless precious wild animals like swan red-crowned crane, Northeast
Tiger, and Northeast Leopard as well as the unique local culture are
attracting thousands of tourists home and abroad.
in the southern part of
's Northeast. Bordering on the Yellow Sea and
in the south and the
in the east and facing
covers an area of 145,900 square kilometers and has a
of 40.41 million. It is located in the southern part of
Bordering on the Yellow Sea and the
in the south and the
in the east and facing
to its southeast.A heavy industrial base from
has a solid industrial foundation with abundant natural resources. It is
one of the comparatively well-developed coastal areas in northern
that are opened to the world. It produces corn, rice, soybeans, apples,
prawns, abalones and kelp. Its
minerals include coal, petroleum, iron ore, diamonds, etc.
is a multi-nationality province with 44 nationalities in the province.
Han nationality, there are 43 minority nationalities, such as the Manchu,
the Mongolian,the Hui,
the Korean and the Sibo. The minority
population is 6,550,000, making up
of the provincial total.
province is located in the central part of Northeast China, adjoining
in the north,
in the south, and the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region in the west. It
lies in the hinterland of the northeastern Asia composed of
, the Democratic People’s
, and the northeast part of
, adjacent to
in the east, and opposite to the DPRK in the southeast across the Tumen
and Yalu rivers. Located between 122-131
degrees E and 41-46 degrees N., its territory covers 187,400 square
kilometers, accounting for 2 percent of the nation’s total, which extend
650 km from east to west, and 300 km from south to north. The land is high
in the southeastern part and low in the northwestern, with a vast plain
lying in its mid-west.
is located in the middle latitudes of the northern hemisphere, east of the
Euro-Asian continent, the northernmost section of the temperate zone in
, nearing the sub-frigid zone. The eastern part of the province is close
to the Yellow Sea and the
Sea of Japan
, where the atmosphere is moist often accompanied with much rain. The
climate of its western part, which is far from the sea and approaches to
the arid Mongolian Plateau, is dry. As a whole, the province has a
distinct temperate continental monsoon climate with a clear-cut change of
four seasons. The yearly average temperature of most part of the province
is 3-5 °C. The annual time of sunshine is 2,200—3,000 hours. The annual
average accumulated temperature in activity is 2,700—3,600 °C. The
precipitation of the province in a year is 550—910 mm and the frost-free
period lasts 120—160 days. With hot and rainy days in the same season,
it is good for farming. The frost period begins in the last 10 days of
September and lasts until the end of April or early May.
The province boasts rich tourism resources. In the provincial capital
, there are the former government office of the
established by the Japanese invaders during World War II, the Jingyuetan
Forest Park, the Monument to the Martyrs of the
Soviet Red Army, the
, and the Changchun Film Studio. In Jilin
City, there are the mountain city of Gaojuli
on Mount Longtans; Beishan
Park; the Songhua Lake in Fengman;
the Baohai Ancient Tombs in Mount Liuding
of Dunhua; the Chengzishan
mountain city in Yanji; the Changbeishan
Nature Reserve that covers a vast area in the three counties of Changbei,
Antu and Fusong
and boasts scenic spots such as the Heavenly Pond, waterfalls, and groups
of hot springs and grand canyons. In Tonghua,
there is the Tomb of General Yang Jingyu.
abbreviated as Ji, is located in the northern
part of Huabei (North
Plain, facing the
in the east.
It is also called "Yanzhao" because
to be the territory of the Yan and the Zhao
states during the periods of Spring and Autumn and
. During the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties,
most important because
was chose to be the capital, and was known as the environs of the capital.
Covering an area of more than 190,000 square
the province has a population of 67.44 million of Han, Hui,
Korean and other ethnic backgrounds.
The provincial capital is
As a famous province of cultural relics in
has numerous historical sites
scenic spots pock-marking throughout its whole territory. There are three world
sites, five national famous historical and cultural cities, and more than
of historical and cultural interest which are under key protection at or
above the provincial level. Major cultural relics and historical remains
include the Mountain Resort and its outlying imperial temples in Chengde,
Eastern and Western Imperial Tombs of the Qing
Dynasty, the Great Wall at Jinshanling, Shanhaiguan
and Laolongtou sections,
in Zhengding, Congtai
Iron Lion in Cang-zhou and Xiangtangshan
Mountain Grottoes in
possesses multiplex landscapes such as seashores, plains, lakes, mountains
and plateau, as well as most diversified natural scenery. There are two
national top ten
spots, five national scenic resorts and nine national forest parks in the
province. Major tourist attractions are
, Baiyangdian scenic resort, known as
"the Pearl of North China" Bashang
and Yesanpo Scenic Area.
means Mountain’s East.
is located in the east of
and at the lower reaches of the Yellow River and abuts the
in the east , standing face to face with Korean
peninsula and Japanese archipelago across the ocean. It has a population
of 90 million and a total area of 156700 square kilometers.
has more than 3000 kilometers long coastline, and almost 170,000 square
area. Shandong Province belongs to the climate of seasonal windy temperate
zone, and average annual temperature is 11-14 o C，rainfall
capital city of
is famous for her long history and culture. Because of a great deal of
is called “
is a famous city along the coast, which has prosperous economy and
is known by all around of the world for “
and Qufu-the hometown of Confucius”.
is a symbol of the culture of
; Yellow River is Mother River of
, and entering into ocean from
. In history, Confucius, whom a grandness ideologist、politician、educationist
, was the pillar of Chinese traditional culture, have a great effect on
has enrichment product resource. The output of foodstuff、cotton、oil
product in Shandong Province are in the forefront of China. Shandong has
found 140 kinds of mineral resources, the reserve of more than 50 kinds of
mineral resources are in the top ten in China, among them, the
reserves and output of gold、gypsum、nature
are come out top of in China.
from 38 degree 34' to 40 degree 15' for north latitude and from 116 degree
43' to 118 degree 4' for east longitude,
is at the Northeast of North China and the lower reaches of the
. The total area is 11919.7 square kilometers. The length from south to
north is 189 kilometers and the width from east to west is 117 kilometers.
is on its east and the
is on its north. It is 137 kilometers from
, calculated from the downtown center of
is the gate of the capital in geography.
In remote antiquity, most areas of Tianjin
used to be a vast ocean and gradually become flatland after the sea water
fell and the entrance of Haihe River moved to
the north for three times and a large of amounts of silt left to make the
coastline move to the east.
Five thousand year ago, human being appeared in
began from the open of the
and development of the transport of grain by water to the capital in the Sui
Dynasty. At the middle of the Tang Dynasty,
became a commercial and transportation center of grain and silk from the
south to the north. In the Song Dynasty, it was called "
" and changed its name "
" at the Yuan Dynasty. The name of
was called at the beginning of the Yongle
Years of the Ming Dynasty at first, which meant that the area passed
through by the Son of Heaven-the emperor. At the second year of Yongle
Years of the Ming Dynasty (1404), as a strategic point,
began to build city wall and defenses and called "Tianjinwei".
In 1860, Tianjin became atrading
port and the second biggest industry and commerce city and the biggest
center of finance,commerce and trade in the
north in which industry production and port trade were only lower than
shanghai for a long time.Tianjin became a
municipality directly under the Central Government of the People's
Republic of China after founding of New China.Now,
there are 18 districts and counties in Tianjin,
including 6 city center districts, as: Heping,
hexi, Hebei, Hedong,
Nankai and Hongqiao;
4 town districts, as: Dongli, Xiqing,
Jinnan, Beichen; 3
seashore districts , as: Tanggu, Hangu
and Dagang, and 5 counties, as : Wuqing,
Ji County, Ninghe,
Baodi and Jinghai.
The resident population is 9.5948 million.
s the capital of
is one of the world's truly imposing cities ,
with a 3,000-year history and 11 million people. Covering 16,808 square
kilometers in area, it is the political, cultural and economic center of
the People's Republic .
adjoins the Inner Mongolian Highland to the northwest and the Great
Northern Plain to the south. Five rivers run through the city, connecting
it to the eastern
. Administratively, the
municipality equals the status of a province ,
reporting directly to the central government.
's primary capital for more than seven centuries.
's imperial past and political present meet at Tiananmen square, where the
palace of the emperors gives way to the Great Hall of the People congress
building and the mausoleum of Chairman Mao Zedong .
The old city walls have been replaced by ring roads, and many of the old
residential districts of alleys and courtyard houses have been turned into
high-rise hotels, office buildings, and department stores.
, a dynamic city where the old and new intermingle, remains a magnet for
visitors from inside and outside
is a city of broad boulevards, now full of traffic and pulsating to the
rhythms of commerce and entertainment. Museums and parks
abound, including the
of the Forbidden City and
in the center of town. Nearby, the China Fine Arts Museum (
meishuguan ) exhibits the work of
's ancient past and recent history are on view at the
and Chinese Revolution at Tiananmen . Antiques,
crafts, and books can be found at Liulichang ,
an old antique market district remodeled in the 1980's to reflect the
style of the old city. Some of the spirit of Old
is also preserved at Qianmen , south of
Tiananmen , with stores that date to the early 20th century and beyond,
including the Tongrentang Traditional Medicine
Shop, first established in 1669. Beijing Opera performances and acrobatic
troupes keep those traditional entertainment forms vital, while
contemporary music clubs and discos thrive in an era of liberalization and